Magnesium Controls Glucose,
Insulin and HbA1c Metabolism
If you want to reduce the risk of diabetes and not be a victim then estimating the magnesium intake from the
food you eat and the water you drink is the primary beginning steps.
For several decades research journals have been providing statistical support that
diets low in magnesium, and water low in magnesium, are both associated with the onset
of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.1, 2, 3
Not surprising, since it is well documented in the field of biochemistry; that glucose entry into
the cells and glucose metabolism within the cells are both
controlled by magnesium-dependent enzymes such as tyrosine kinase and phosphofructokinase.
When the intracellular magnesium ions become too low, due to the chronic consumption of a diet
low in magnesium, the magnesium enzymes will no longer function properly.6
Explaining why, regardless of gender, body mass index, ethnicity, or a family’s
history of diabetes; increasing magnesium intake has improved glucose, insulin, and Hba1c metabolism
in type-1 and type-2 diabetic children and adults and in prediabetic patients.7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
✦ How is it Possible to become Magnesium Deficient?
The answer to this question is simple; because the magnesium concentrations vary so
much between foods that it is easy to pick a group of foods low in magnesium; and if eaten on a
regular basis will eventually result in a deficiency.
Consider the following two dietary examples.
|1/4 cup Pecan Nuts||30||1/4 cup Cashews||80|
|1 cup Green Beans||18||1 cup White Beans||134|
|1 Granny Smith Apple||8||1 Asian Pear||22|
|1 cup Wild Rice||52||1 cup Quinoa||118|
|1 cup Fresh Spinach||8||Canned Spinach||163|
|2 Liters Purified Bottled Water||0||2 Liters Evian Water||52|
|Total||116 mg||Total||569 mg|
As the above example shows, many foods and bottled waters may not contain enough magnesium to prevent a deficiency,
if consumed during a lifetime.
Furthermore, because a subclinical magnesium deficiency has no clinical symptoms; its onset and
progression goes unnoticed due to a lack of suspicion.
Because of this, a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency is considered to be the number one miss-diagnosed
abnormality in medical practice today, and; a public health crisis.15, 16
Individuals who have a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency may appear health, however,
at the cellular level, there is something terribly wrong.
✦The Diabetic Electrolyte Ratio
In its most simplistic context, at the cellular level, diabetes is simply an electrolyte imbalance between the calcium and
And the risk in this electrolyte disorder can be predicted and managed
by the dietary Calcium/Magnesium intake ratio.
✦The Calcium/Magnesium Ratios
Over the past 30-years, due to the over consumptions of calcium supplements and calcium-fortified foods;
the intake of calcium has steadily increased while that of magnesium has not.
This has shifted the general publics's average dietary Ca/Mg intake ratio from what use to be a safe value of 2.3 to
a value well above 4.0.
And a dietary ratio> 3.0 coincides with a rise in diabetes and a blood ratio > 3.0
has been correlated with glycemic control in type 2 diabetics and the degree of insulin resistance.17, 18, 19
✦Recommended Ca/Mg Ratio
Individuals consuming a diet consisting of foods with a Ca/Mg ratio always > 2.5 are
at high risk of developing a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency and if left uncontrolled,
There is nothing wrong with eating foods or drinking water
with a high Ca/Mg ratio but they must not dominate your diet over a long period of time.
There exist in the general population a dietary-induced hidden health condition known
as a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency and is being driven by a high dietary Calcium/Magnesium intake ratio.
Most disturbing; this population is completely unaware they are increasing their risk
for type-2 diabetes because a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency has no medically acknowledged
clinical symptoms. © Bio Bionics
- Magnesium Intake, Insulin Resistance, and Type 2 Diabetes. Ying Song, Qi Dai, Ka He.
North American Journal of Medicine and Science. July 2013, Vol.6, No.1, pages 9-15.
- Drinking water composition and childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes mellitus
in Devon and Cornwall, England. Zhao H.X., Mold M.D., Stenhouse E.A., Bird S.C., Wright D.E., Demaine A.G.,
Millward B.A. Diabetes Medicine. September 2001, Vol.18, No.9, pages 709-17.
- Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk
of type 2 diabetes in women. Song Y., Manson J.E., Buring J.E., and Liu S. Diabetes Care.
January 2004, Vol.27, No.1, pages 59-65.
- Magnesium Regulation of the Glycolytic Pathway and the Enzymes Involved.
Garfinkel L., Garfinkel D.
Magnesium Research. 1985, Vol.2, No.2-3, pages 60-72.
- Intracellular Magnesium and Insulin Resistance. Takaya J., Higashino H., Kobayashi Y.
Magnesium Research. June 2004, Vol.17, No.2, pages 126-136.
- Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Intracellular
Giuseppe Paolisso, and Mario Barbagallo. American Journal of Hypertension.
March 1997, Vol.10, Issue 3, pages 346-355.
- Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in
Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: a randomized double-blind control trial. Martha Rodriguez-Moran M.,
Guerro-Romero F. DIABETES CARE. April 2003,
Vol.26, No.4, pages 1147-1152.
- Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Non-diabetic Subjects with
Insulin Resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Guerrero-Romero F.,
Tamez-Perez H.E., Gonzalez-Gonzalez G., Salinas-Martinez A.M., Montes-Villarreal J.,
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Hypertension. August 1999, Vol.12, Issue 8, pages 747-756.
- Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin.
Knowler WC., Barrett-Conner E., Fowler SE., Hamman RF., Lachin JM., Walker EA., Nathan DM.,
New England Journal of Medicine. February 7th, 2002, Vol.346, No.6, pages 393-403.
- Higher Magnesium Intake Reduces Risk of Impaired Glucose and Insulin Metabolism and
Progression From Prediabetes to Diabetes in Middle-Aged Americans. Adela Hruby,
James B. Meigs, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Paul F. Jacques, Nicola M. McKeown
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Mortality: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Xuexian Fang, Kai Wang,
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Jiayu Wei, Lu Zhao, Mustapha Umar Imam, Zhiguang Ping, Yusheng Li, Yuming Xu, Junxia Min,
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- Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Children
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Diabetes Care. Vol.26, No.4, pages 1147-1152.
- Subclinical Magnesium Deficiency: a Principal Driver of Cardiovascular Disease
and a Public Health Crisis. James J. DiNicolantonio., James H O'Keefe., and William Wilson.
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- Rising Ca:Mg Intake Ratio from Food in USA Adults: a concern? Andrea Rosanoff.
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- Status of Micro and Macro Nutrients in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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