Magnesium Controls Glucose,
Insulin and HbA1c Metabolism

Introduction

If you want to reduce the risk of diabetes and not be a victim then estimating the magnesium intake from the food you eat and the water you drink is the primary beginning steps.

For several decades research journals have been providing statistical support that diets low in magnesium, and water low in magnesium, are both associated with the onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.1, 2, 3

Not surprising, since it is well documented in the field of biochemistry; that glucose entry into the cells and glucose metabolism within the cells are both controlled by magnesium-dependent enzymes such as tyrosine kinase and phosphofructokinase. 4, 5

When the intracellular magnesium ions become too low, due to the chronic consumption of a diet low in magnesium, the magnesium enzymes will no longer function properly.6

Explaining why, regardless of gender, body mass index, ethnicity, or a family’s history of diabetes; increasing magnesium intake has improved glucose, insulin, and Hba1c metabolism in type-1 and type-2 diabetic children and adults and in prediabetic patients.7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

How is it Possible to become Magnesium Deficient?

The answer to this question is simple; because the magnesium concentrations vary so much between foods that it is easy to pick a group of foods low in magnesium; and if eaten on a regular basis will eventually result in a deficiency.

Consider the following two dietary examples.

FoodMagnesiumFoodMagnesium
1/4 cup Pecan Nuts301/4 cup Cashews80
1 cup Green Beans181 cup White Beans134
1 Granny Smith Apple81 Asian Pear22
1 cup Wild Rice521 cup Quinoa118
1 cup Fresh Spinach8Canned Spinach163
2 Liters Purified Bottled Water02 Liters Evian Water52
Total116 mgTotal569 mg

As the above example shows, many foods and bottled waters may not contain enough magnesium to prevent a deficiency, if consumed during a lifetime.

Furthermore, because a subclinical magnesium deficiency has no clinical symptoms; its onset and progression goes unnoticed due to a lack of suspicion.

Because of this, a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency is considered to be the number one miss-diagnosed abnormality in medical practice today, and; a public health crisis.15, 16

Individuals who have a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency may appear health, however, at the cellular level, there is something terribly wrong.

The Diabetic Electrolyte Ratio

In its most simplistic context, at the cellular level, diabetes is simply an electrolyte imbalance between the calcium and magnesium ions.

And the risk in this electrolyte disorder can be predicted and managed by the dietary Calcium/Magnesium intake ratio.

The Calcium/Magnesium Ratios

Over the past 30-years, due to the over consumptions of calcium supplements and calcium-fortified foods; the intake of calcium has steadily increased while that of magnesium has not.

This has shifted the general publics's average dietary Ca/Mg intake ratio from what use to be a safe value of 2.3 to a value well above 4.0. And a dietary ratio> 3.0 coincides with a rise in diabetes and a blood ratio > 3.0 has been correlated with glycemic control in type 2 diabetics and the degree of insulin resistance.17, 18, 19

Recommended Ca/Mg Ratio

Individuals consuming a diet consisting of foods with a Ca/Mg ratio always > 2.5 are at high risk of developing a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency and if left uncontrolled, type-2 diabetes.

There is nothing wrong with eating foods or drinking water with a high Ca/Mg ratio but they must not dominate your diet over a long period of time.

Summary

There exist in the general population a dietary-induced hidden health condition known as a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency and is being driven by a high dietary Calcium/Magnesium intake ratio.

Most disturbing; this population is completely unaware they are increasing their risk for type-2 diabetes because a sub-clinical magnesium deficiency has no medically acknowledged clinical symptoms. © Bio Bionics

References

  1. Magnesium Intake, Insulin Resistance, and Type 2 Diabetes. Ying Song, Qi Dai, Ka He. North American Journal of Medicine and Science. July 2013, Vol.6, No.1, pages 9-15.
  2. Drinking water composition and childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Devon and Cornwall, England. Zhao H.X., Mold M.D., Stenhouse E.A., Bird S.C., Wright D.E., Demaine A.G., Millward B.A. Diabetes Medicine. September 2001, Vol.18, No.9, pages 709-17.
  3. Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Song Y., Manson J.E., Buring J.E., and Liu S. Diabetes Care. January 2004, Vol.27, No.1, pages 59-65.
  4. Magnesium Regulation of the Glycolytic Pathway and the Enzymes Involved. Garfinkel L., Garfinkel D. Magnesium Research. 1985, Vol.2, No.2-3, pages 60-72.
  5. Intracellular Magnesium and Insulin Resistance. Takaya J., Higashino H., Kobayashi Y. Magnesium Research. June 2004, Vol.17, No.2, pages 126-136.
  6. Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Intracellular Magnesium. Giuseppe Paolisso, and Mario Barbagallo. American Journal of Hypertension. March 1997, Vol.10, Issue 3, pages 346-355.
  7. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: a randomized double-blind control trial. Martha Rodriguez-Moran M., Guerro-Romero F. DIABETES CARE. April 2003, Vol.26, No.4, pages 1147-1152.
  8. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Non-diabetic Subjects with Insulin Resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Guerrero-Romero F., Tamez-Perez H.E., Gonzalez-Gonzalez G., Salinas-Martinez A.M., Montes-Villarreal J., Trevino-Ortiz J.H., Rodriguez-Moran M. Diabetes Metabolism. June 2004, Vol.30, No.3, pages 253-258.
  9. Low Dietary Magnesium is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Sample of Young, Nondiabetic Black Americans. Humphries s., Kushner h., and Falkner B. American Journal of Hypertension. August 1999, Vol.12, Issue 8, pages 747-756.
  10. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. Knowler WC., Barrett-Conner E., Fowler SE., Hamman RF., Lachin JM., Walker EA., Nathan DM., New England Journal of Medicine. February 7th, 2002, Vol.346, No.6, pages 393-403.
  11. Higher Magnesium Intake Reduces Risk of Impaired Glucose and Insulin Metabolism and Progression From Prediabetes to Diabetes in Middle-Aged Americans. Adela Hruby, James B. Meigs, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Paul F. Jacques, Nicola M. McKeown DIABETES CARE, February 2014, Vol.37, pages 419-427.
  12. Dietary Magnesium Intake and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and All-Cause Mortality: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Xuexian Fang, Kai Wang, Dan Han, Xuyan He, Jiayu Wei, Lu Zhao, Mustapha Umar Imam, Zhiguang Ping, Yusheng Li, Yuming Xu, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang.BMC Medicine, 2016, Vol.14, page 210.
  13. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Children with Type 1 Diabetes and Hypomagnesaemia. Shahbah D., Hassan T., Morsey S. Saadany H.E. Fathy M., Al-Ghobashy A., Elsamad N.,Eman A., Elhewala A., Ibrahim B., Gebaly S.E., Sayed H.E., Ahmed H. Medicine (Baltimore) March 2017 Vol.96, Issue 11, e6352.
  14. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. Martha Rodriguez-Moran, Fernardo Guerrero-Romero. Diabetes Care. Vol.26, No.4, pages 1147-1152.
  15. Subclinical Magnesium Deficiency: a Principal Driver of Cardiovascular Disease and a Public Health Crisis. James J. DiNicolantonio., James H O'Keefe., and William Wilson. Open Heart. January 2018, Vol.13, No.5, pages 1-16.
  16. Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: is the health consequence underestimated? Andrew Rosanoff, Connie M Weaver, and Robert K. Rude. Nutrition Reviews. March 2012, Vol.70, No.3, pages 153-164.
  17. Rising Ca:Mg Intake Ratio from Food in USA Adults: a concern? Andrea Rosanoff. Magnesium Research. 2010 Vol.23, No.4, pages s181-s193.
  18. Status of Micro and Macro Nutrients in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Suggesting the Importance of Cation Ratios. Ramesh Ramaswamy, Niranjan Gopal, Sony Joseph, Sathish Babu Murugaiyan, M. Joseph, Densely Jose, V. Kuzhandaivelu, A.Velayutharaj. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. August 2016, Vol. 6, pages 191-196.
  19. Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. Resnick, L.M. Journal of the American Soc Nephrology October 1992, Vol.3 (4 suppl) pages s76-s85.
  20. Common Genetic Variants of the Ion Channel Transient Receptor Potential Membrane Melastatin 6 and 7(TRPM6 and TRPM7), Magnesium Intake, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Yiqing Song, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Tianhua Niu, JoAnn E. Manson, Julie E. Burning, and Simin Liu. BMC Medical Genetics January 17th, 2009, Vol.10, Issue 4, pages 1-12.
  21. Magnesium Sulfate in Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia: Pharmacokinetic Principles. Lu J.F., Nighting C.H. Clinical Pharmacokinetics April 2000, Vol. 38, No.4, 305-314.
  22. Effects of Magnesium and Potassium on Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. Sideris AM, Galiatsu E, Filippatos GS, Kappos K, Anthopoulos LP. Journal Electrocardiology January 1996, Vol.29, Issue 1, pages 11-15.